Tiere aus Südamerika. Bent u hier via een pagina in Wikipedia terechtgekomen? Pas dan de verwijzing naar deze doorverwijspagina aan, zodat toekomstige. Aber um frei zu sein, muss man leben. Hüten wir das Leben!“ Karte von Mittel- und Südamerika (Wikipedia / Deutschlandradio) Mittel- und. Südamerika ist der südliche Teil des amerikanischen Doppelkontinentes, hat eine Bevölkerungszahl von Millionen Menschen und ist mit einer Fläche von.
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War Südamerika bis vor Nach herrschender Meinung zur Besiedlung Amerikas wurde der nördliche Kontinent um ca.
In Südamerika tauchen die ersten menschlichen Spuren zwischen Als älteste amerikanische Kultur gilt die Valdivia-Kultur in Ecuador im 4. Jahrtausend v.
Ab dem 2. Durch die Ankunft der spanischen Eroberer wurde das Inkareich zerschlagen. Der östliche Teil, das heutige Brasilien, wurde Portugal zugesprochen.
Panama und der Rest des Kontinents fielen an Spanien. Zahlreiche spanische und portugiesische Missionare kamen im Jahrhundert nach Südamerika und führten das Christentum ein.
Der Drang nach Unabhängigkeit nahm seitdem stetig zu. Im Süden erkämpfte sich Argentinien die Unabhängigkeit. Die Unabhängigkeit Ecuadors wurde in der Schlacht am Pichincha durchgesetzt.
Dezember Mit dieser Schlacht zogen sich die Spanier als politische Macht endgültig aus Südamerika zurück. In Brasilien nahm die Unabhängigkeitsbewegung einen etwas anderen Lauf.
Da das portugiesische Königshaus mit Hofstaat auf der Flucht vor Napoleon nach Brasilien flüchtete und damit die eigentliche Hauptstadt des portugiesischen Weltreiches von Lissabon nach Rio de Janeiro verlegt wurde, war Brasilien ab diesem Jahr faktisch und ab offiziell mit Portugal gleichgestellt.
Die Unabhängigkeit wurde endgültig vom portugiesischen Thronfolger Pedro ausgerufen und Brasilien wurde zu einer Monarchie. Kurzzeitig schlossen sich Peru und Bolivien dem Bündnis an.
Aber bereits zerfiel die Konföderation endgültig und es bildeten sich die heutigen Nationalstaaten. Entwicklung der Bevölkerung Südamerikas in Millionen .
Januar lebten in Südamerika etwa Millionen Menschen. Die Bevölkerung Südamerikas ist durch Vermischung der Völker gekennzeichnet, die als indigene Bewohner dort heimisch waren und den Volksgruppen, die sich später hier angesiedelt haben.
Letztere waren meist europäische Zuwanderer oder aus Afrika hierher verschleppte Sklaven. Somit überwiegt der Anteil der Mestizo , der Mulatten und Zambos.
Reste der Urbevölkerung leben fast nur noch im Andenhochland und im Amazonasgebiet. Da Südamerika im Vertrag von Tordesillas zwischen Spanien und Portugal aufgeteilt wurde, wird in Brasilien heute Portugiesisch in seiner brasilianischen Variante gesprochen, während in fast allen anderen südamerikanischen Staaten die Landessprache Spanisch ist.
In Suriname wird neben Niederländisch auch Sranantongo als Lingua franca gesprochen. In Bolivien werden indigene Sprachen — teilweise neben dem Spanischen — von mehr als der Hälfte der Bevölkerung gesprochen.
Seit sind alle indigenen Sprachen Boliviens durch die Verfassung neben dem Spanischen als Amtssprachen anerkannt.
Kolumbien erkennt alle indigenen Sprachen, die im Land gesprochen werden, als offizielle Sprachen an, doch es handelt sich dabei um weniger als ein Prozent Muttersprachler.
Die überwiegende Mehrheit der Bevölkerung bekennt sich zum römisch-katholischen Glauben. Der Anteil der Katholiken nimmt seitdem beständig ab, und vor allem Freikirchen und religiöse Sondergemeinschaften erfreuen sich des Zulaufs.
Bis in das späte Jahrhundert wurden afrikanische Sklaven vor allem auf den exportorientierten Plantagen im Karibischen Becken, an der Pazifikküste und in Brasilien eingesetzt.
Die Sklaverei wurde in Brasilien erst und damit später als in fast allen anderen Ländern abgeschafft.
Die systematische Haltung von Abhängigen im sozial relativ geschlossenen Hazienda -System dauerte bis weit in das Jahrhundert hinein an.
Der Bergbau spielte schon in vielen vorkolonialen Kulturen Südamerikas eine bedeutende Rolle. Einer der wesentlichen Gründe für die Konquista war die Unterwerfung indianischer Gold - und Silberreiche , wobei die Sage von El Dorado eine nicht zu unterschätzende Rolle spielte.
These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere.
However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability.
This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.
South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity , containing a major proportion of Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population.
The remaining countries and territories are divided among four subregions : the Andean states , Caribbean South America , the Guianas , and the Southern Cone.
Physiographically, South America also includes some of the nearby islands. Geopolitically, all the island countries and overseas dependent territories in the Caribbean are generally grouped as a subregion of North America.
Easter Island a part of Oceania but administered by Chile , Bouvet Island physiographically and biographically associated with Antarctica , administered by Norway , and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands physiographically and biographically associated with Antarctica, administered by the United Kingdom are also associated with South America.
In temperate latitudes, winters and summers are milder than in North America. This is because the most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region.
Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco, predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese, that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory.
The east-central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate. The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type, while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type.
At the highest points of the Andean region, climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords.
In the Andean plateaus, the warm climate prevails, although it is tempered by the altitude, while in the coastal strip, there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type.
From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear, successively, Mediterranean oceanic climate , temperate of the Breton type and, already in Tierra del Fuego , cold climate of the Siberian type.
The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses. In most of the tropical region east of the Andes, winds blowing from the northeast, east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic, causing abundant rainfall.
However, due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone , South Atlantic tropical cyclones are rare.
The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones , and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert.
In the Pampas of Argentina, Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate, with rains well distributed during the year. The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay.
In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime. Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents, such as the current Humboldt and Falklands.
The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others: the current of Brazil and a coastal current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles , where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world, the Gulf Stream.
South America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era , until the supercontinent Pangaea began to rift and break apart about million years ago.
Therefore, South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers. South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge now the Bering Strait at least 15, years ago from the territory that is present-day Russia.
The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about BC, when squashes , chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin.
Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc , which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as BC. By BC, many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions.
Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.
Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods. The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.
One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico , on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt.
Around the 7th century, both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire —, Central and northern Peru expanded its influence to all the Andean region, imposing the Huari urbanism and Tiahuanaco religious iconography.
The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia. They established the Muisca Confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos , that had a free trade network among themselves.
They were goldsmiths and farmers. Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco , the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from to Known as Tawantin suyu , and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua , the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed.
Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some nine to fourteen million people connected by a 25, kilometer road system.
Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain.
Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture. In , Portugal and Spain , the two great maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas , by which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.
In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line known to comprise most of the South American soil would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal.
As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.
Beginning in the s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors , first from Spain and later from Portugal.
These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies. Systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mit'a also contributed to the depopulation.
After this, African slaves , who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them. The Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end; however, many initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with their established beliefs and practices.
Eventually, the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. At the beginning, many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers.
After independence, most mestizos had native fathers and European or mestizo mothers. Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers; this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal.
Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western European architectural style to the continent, and helped to improve infrastructures like bridges, roads, and the sewer system of the cities they discovered or conquered.
They also significantly increased economic and trade relations, not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples.
Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American.
Guyana was first a Dutch, and then a British colony , though there was a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars when it was colonized by the French.
The country was once partitioned into three parts, each being controlled by one of the colonial powers until the country was finally taken over fully by the British.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with African slaves who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries.
The colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of European settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions.
The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Atlantic slave trade brought African slaves primarily to South American colonies, beginning with the Portuguese since An estimated 4.
While the Portuguese, English, French and Dutch settlers enslaved mainly African blacks, the Spaniards became very disposed of the natives.
In Portugal abolished native slavery in the colonies because they considered them unfit for labour and began to import even more African slaves.
Slaves were brought to the mainland on slave ships , under inhuman conditions and ill-treatment, and those who survived were sold into the slave markets.
After independence, all South American countries maintained slavery for some time. The first South American country to abolish slavery was Chile in , Uruguay in , Bolivia in , Colombia and Ecuador in , Argentina in , Peru and Venezuela in , Suriname in , Paraguay in , and in Brazil was the last South American nation and the last country in western world to abolish slavery.
The European Peninsular War — , a theater of the Napoleonic Wars , changed the political situation of both the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.
This appointment provoked severe popular resistance, which created Juntas to rule in the name of the captured king. Many cities in the Spanish colonies, however, considered themselves equally authorized to appoint local Juntas like those of Spain.
This began the Spanish American wars of independence between the patriots, who promoted such autonomy, and the royalists , who supported Spanish authority over the Americas.
The Juntas, in both Spain and the Americas, promoted the ideas of the Enlightenment. Five years after the beginning of the war, Ferdinand VII returned to the throne and began the Absolutist Restoration as the royalists got the upper hand in the conflict.
He organized a fleet to reach Peru by sea, and sought the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru. The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador , where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.
The newly independent nations began a process of fragmentation, with several civil and international wars. However, it was not as strong as in Central America.
Rather, he was making a political statement in opposition to the monarchist and centralist ideas that back then permeated Buenos Aires politics.
The "country" was reincorporated at the United Provinces in Three years later, the United Kingdom intervened in the question by proclaiming a tie and creating in the former Cisplatina a new independent country: The Oriental Republic of Uruguay.
Later in , while Brazil was experiencing the chaos of the regency, Rio Grande do Sul proclaimed its independence motivated by a tax crisis.
With the anticipation of the coronation of Pedro II to the throne of Brazil, the country could stabilize and fight the separatists, which the province of Santa Catarina had joined in The Conflict came to an end by a process of compromise by which both Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic were reincorporated as provinces in The Peru—Bolivian Confederation , a short-lived union of Peru and Bolivia, was blocked by Chile in the War of the Confederation — and again during the War of the Pacific — Despite the Spanish American wars of independence and the Brazilian War of Independence , the new nations quickly began to suffer with internal conflicts and wars among themselves.
The result was a stalemate, ending with the British arranging for the independence of Uruguay. Soon after, another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won.
Between and the War of the Confederation broke out between the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile , with the support of the Argentine Confederation.
The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina.
Meanwhile, the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence. The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation.
During this period it can be said that "there were two Argentines": the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic.
At the same time the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country.
All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil, which was soon forced to take sides.
In the Brazilian Empire , supporting the centralizing unitarians, and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo, Juan Manuel Rosas , who ruled the confederation with an iron hand.
Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina, it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won, supported by the Brazilian Empire , British Empire , French Empire and the Unitarian Party of Argentina.
Peace lasted only a short time: in the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War. The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders.
The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success.
In , after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused, the imperial government declared that Brazil's military would begin reprisals. Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war, and, for most of its duration, the Uruguayan—Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro-Brazilian Colorados to power again.
This angered the Paraguayan government, which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil, beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories: the Paraguayan War.
His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro-Brazilian Argentine government into the war.
The pro-Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops. In the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay.
At the beginning of the war, the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories, until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively.
This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War. It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries, taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete devastation of Paraguay.
The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil, which maintained occupation forces in the country until In the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports, followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru.
The Bolivians were completely defeated in and Lima was occupied in The peace was signed with Peru in while a truce was signed with Bolivia in Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea.
In the new century, as wars became less violent and less frequent, Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre, which was acquired by Brazil in In Brazil declared war on the Central Powers , joined the allied side in World War I and sent a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French forces.
In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco, in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay's victory.
Between and Peru and Ecuador fought decisively for territories claimed by both that were annexed by Peru, usurping Ecuador's frontier with Brazil.
Also in this period the first naval battle of World War II was fought on the continent, in the River Plate , between British forces and German submarines.
Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic, in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign.
A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in , following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands , which ended with an Argentine defeat.
The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border.
Wars became less frequent in the 20th century, with Bolivia-Paraguay and Peru-Ecuador fighting the last inter-state wars.
Early in the 20th century, the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which began after the introduction of a new warship type, the " dreadnought ".
At one point, the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase.
The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the s and s.
Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. Throughout the s and s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict. In , Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands , a British dependent territory.
The Falklands War began and 74 days later Argentine forces surrendered. Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in with the creation of Marxist guerrillas FARC-EP and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords.
Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC.
Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II , but since the s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now.
International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.
Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil ,  [ full citation needed ] Chile , Argentina and Uruguay.
All South American countries are presidential republics with the exception of Suriname , a parliamentary republic. Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence.
Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community , thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world.
South America has a population of over million people. There are several areas of sparse demographics such as tropical forests , the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia.
On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers.
The population is formed by descendants of Europeans mainly Spaniards , Portuguese and Italians , Africans and Indigenous peoples.
There is a high percentage of mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians , [ further explanation needed ] especially in Brazil.
The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by French, English and Dutch in smaller numbers. Spanish and Portuguese are the most spoken languages in South America, with approximately million speakers each.
Spanish is the official language of most countries, along with other native languages in some countries. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil.
Dutch is the official language of Suriname ; English is the official language of Guyana , although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country, including Portuguese , Chinese , Hindustani and several native languages.
At least three South American indigenous languages Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.
German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival.
Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese -speakers in Brazil, Colombia and Peru.
Crypto-Jews or Marranos , conversos , and Anusim were an important part of colonial life in Latin America. Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism have spread throughout the continent.
Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries. Part of Religions in South America : . Genetic admixture occurs at very high levels in South America.
The native European population is also a significant element in most other former Portuguese colonies. People who identify as of primarily or totally European descent , or identify their phenotype as corresponding to such group, are more of a majority in Argentina,  and Uruguay  and more than half of the population of Chile South America is also home to one of the largest populations of Africans.
In many places indigenous people still practice a traditional lifestyle based on subsistence agriculture or as hunter-gatherers. There are still some uncontacted tribes residing in the Amazon Rainforest.
The most populous country in South America is Brazil with The second largest country is Colombia with a population of 49,, Argentina is the third most populous country with 44,, While Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations.
These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and three of five in the Americas. Five of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Brazil.
Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within Brazil, Argentina is host to the second largest metropolitan area by population in South America: the Buenos Aires metropolitan region is above 13 million inhabitants.
There are about , Hindus in South America , chiefly the descendants of Indian indentured laborers in the Guianas.
In Guyana and Suriname, Hindus form the second largest religion and in some regions and districts, Hindus forms the majority.
Argentina has 2, peoples of Indian origin and 1, non-resident Indians. Some of them still refer to ayurveda , practice yoga, enjoy Indian classical music, and speak the Hindi language.
They have established an Indian Association  in the northern provinces and organize social and cultural events to celebrate Indian festivals.
Unfortunately, there is little interaction between them and those who have settled down in other parts of the extensive country. A large number of the Indian diaspora living in Buenos Aires are businessmen, doctors, financial or business executives, and employees of multinational corporations.
Most of them have retained their Indian citizenship. According to the census, there are about Hindus in brazil constituting 0.
Most of the Brazilian Hindus are ethnic East Indians. However, there are new converts due to the missionary effects of Hare Krishnas.
A small number of Sindhis that arrived from Suriname and Central America in to set up shop as traders in the city of Manaus is considered to be the first wave of immigration.
The second wave consisted of university professors who arrived in the s and also in the s. A few Indians had gone to Chile in the s.
The others migrated there about 30 years ago [ when? The Hindu Community in Chile comprises more than members. Among these, people 90 families lives in the Capital city Santiago.
Most of the Hindus in Chile are Sindhis. The activities of businessmen in Santiago are mainly confined to imports and retail stores.
Hinduism in Colombia was mainly introduced with the arrival of Indians , especially Indian migrant workers from Trinidad and Tobago , Guyana , and Suriname.
Most of the Hindus in French Guiana are of Surinamese origin. According to the census 1. During the indenture period, the East Indian caste system broke down.
Hinduism was redefined, and caste-distinguishing practices were eliminated. Christian missionaries attempted to convert East Indians during the indenture period, beginning in , but met with little success.
The missionaries blamed the Brahmins for their failure: the Brahmins began administering spiritual rites to all Hindus regardless of caste once the Christian missionaries started proselytizing in the villages, hastening the breakdown of the caste system.
After the s, Hindu conversions to Christianity slowed because the status of Hinduism improved and the discrimination against Hindus diminished.
In areas where there are large percentage of Indo Guyanese residing together — Mandirs of various sizes can be found, according to the population.
Since the late s, reform movements caught the attention of many Guyanese Hindus. The most important, the Arya Samaj movement, arrived in Guyana in Arya Samaj doctrine rejects the idea of caste and the exclusive role of Brahmins as religious leaders.
The movement preaches monotheism and opposition to the use of images in worship as well as many traditional Hindu rituals. Approximately between , and , identified themselves as Hindus in the census.
In the census, it was estimated that about Hindus live in Paraguay. They make up 0. Paraguay's ambassador to India, Mr Pappalardo, gave Punjab farmers a high opportunity to invest the country.In women, genitourinary disease can also include genital lesions that may lead to increased rates of HIV transmission. The Condor Operation expanded its clandestine repression from Uruguay to Brazil in Novemberin an event later known as "o Sequestro dos Uruguaios," or "the Kidnapping Itf Leipzig the Uruguayans. Based on CIA documents stated that from to the early s, the plans were developed among international security officials at the US Army School of the Americas Südamerika Wikipedia the Conference of American Armies to deal with political dissidents in South America. Foreign Policy. President Bill Clinton ordered the declassification of thousands of State World Millions documents related to U.