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The endosteum is the boundary between the cortical bone and the cancellous bone. Cancellous bone, also called trabecular or spongy bone,  is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell porous network.
Cancellous bone has a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio than cortical bone and it is less dense. This makes it weaker and more flexible.
The greater surface area also makes it suitable for metabolic activities such as the exchange of calcium ions. Cancellous bone is typically found at the ends of long bones, near joints and in the interior of vertebrae.
Cancellous bone is highly vascular and often contains red bone marrow where hematopoiesis , the production of blood cells, occurs.
The primary anatomical and functional unit of cancellous bone is the trabecula. The trabeculae are aligned towards the mechanical load distribution that a bone experiences within long bones such as the femur.
As far as short bones are concerned, trabecular alignment has been studied in the vertebral pedicle. Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets , red blood cells and white blood cells.
The words cancellous and trabecular refer to the tiny lattice-shaped units trabeculae that form the tissue. Bone marrow , also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds cancellous tissue.
In adults, red marrow is mostly found in the bone marrow of the femur, the ribs, the vertebrae and pelvic bones. Bone is a metabolically active tissue composed of several types of cells.
These cells include osteoblasts , which are involved in the creation and mineralization of bone tissue, osteocytes , and osteoclasts , which are involved in the reabsorption of bone tissue.
Osteoblasts and osteocytes are derived from osteoprogenitor cells, but osteoclasts are derived from the same cells that differentiate to form macrophages and monocytes.
These cells give rise to other cells, including white blood cells , red blood cells , and platelets. Osteoblasts are mononucleate bone-forming cells.
They are located on the surface of osteon seams and make a protein mixture known as osteoid , which mineralizes to become bone. Osteoid is primarily composed of Type I collagen.
Osteoblasts also manufacture hormones , such as prostaglandins , to act on the bone itself. The osteoblast creates and repairs new bone by actually building around itself.
First, the osteoblast puts up collagen fibers. These collagen fibers are used as a framework for the osteoblasts' work. The osteoblast then deposits calcium phosphate which is hardened by hydroxide and bicarbonate ions.
The brand-new bone created by the osteoblast is called osteoid. When the osteoblast becomes trapped, it becomes known as an osteocyte.
Osteocytes are mostly inactive osteoblasts. Osteocytes have many processes that reach out to meet osteoblasts and other osteocytes probably for the purposes of communication.
Osteoclasts are very large multinucleate cells that are responsible for the breakdown of bones by the process of bone resorption.
New bone is then formed by the osteoblasts. Bone is constantly remodelled by the resorption of osteoclasts and created by osteoblasts.
These lacunae are the result of surrounding bone tissue that has been reabsorbed. Upon arrival, active enzymes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase , are secreted against the mineral substrate.
Bones consist of living cells embedded in a mineralized organic matrix. This matrix consists of organic components, mainly type I collagen —"organic" referring to materials produced as a result of the human body—and inorganic components, primarily hydroxyapatite and other salts of calcium and phosphate.
These effects are synergistic. The inorganic composition of bone bone mineral is primarily formed from salts of calcium and phosphate , the major salt being hydroxyapatite Ca 10 PO 4 6 OH 2.
Collagen consists of strands of repeating units, which give bone tensile strength, and are arranged in an overlapping fashion that prevents shear stress.
The function of ground substance is not fully known. Woven bone is produced when osteoblasts produce osteoid rapidly, which occurs initially in all fetal bones, but is later replaced by more resilient lamellar bone.
In adults woven bone is created after fractures or in Paget's disease. Woven bone is weaker, with a smaller number of randomly oriented collagen fibers, but forms quickly; it is for this appearance of the fibrous matrix that the bone is termed woven.
It is soon replaced by lamellar bone, which is highly organized in concentric sheets with a much lower proportion of osteocytes to surrounding tissue.
Lamellar bone, which makes its first appearance in humans in the fetus during the third trimester,  is stronger and filled with many collagen fibers parallel to other fibers in the same layer these parallel columns are called osteons.
In cross-section , the fibers run in opposite directions in alternating layers, much like in plywood , assisting in the bone's ability to resist torsion forces.
After a fracture, woven bone forms initially and is gradually replaced by lamellar bone during a process known as "bony substitution.
Lamellar bone also requires a relatively flat surface to lay the collagen fibers in parallel or concentric layers. The extracellular matrix of bone is laid down by osteoblasts , which secrete both collagen and ground substance.
These synthesise collagen within the cell, and then secrete collagen fibrils. The collagen fibers rapidly polymerise to form collagen strands.
At this stage they are not yet mineralised, and are called "osteoid". Around the strands calcium and phosphate precipitate on the surface of these strands, within days to weeks becoming crystals of hydroxyapatite.
In order to mineralise the bone, the osteoblasts secrete vesicles containing alkaline phosphatase. This cleaves the phosphate groups and acts as the foci for calcium and phosphate deposition.
The vesicles then rupture and act as a centre for crystals to grow on. More particularly, bone mineral is formed from globular and plate structures.
There are five types of bones in the human body: long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid. In the study of anatomy , anatomists use a number of anatomical terms to describe the appearance, shape and function of bones.
Other anatomical terms are also used to describe the location of bones. Like other anatomical terms, many of these derive from Latin and Greek.
Some anatomists still use Latin to refer to bones. The term "osseous", and the prefix "osteo-", referring to things related to bone, are still used commonly today.
Some examples of terms used to describe bones include the term "foramen" to describe a hole through which something passes, and a "canal" or "meatus" to describe a tunnel-like structure.
A protrusion from a bone can be called a number of terms, including a "condyle", "crest", "spine", "eminence", "tubercle" or "tuberosity", depending on the protrusion's shape and location.
In general, long bones are said to have a "head", "neck", and "body". When two bones join together, they are said to "articulate".
If the two bones have a fibrous connection and are relatively immobile, then the joint is called a "suture". The formation of bone is called ossification.
During the fetal stage of development this occurs by two processes: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification.
Intramembranous ossification mainly occurs during formation of the flat bones of the skull but also the mandible, maxilla, and clavicles; the bone is formed from connective tissue such as mesenchyme tissue rather than from cartilage.
The process includes: the development of the ossification center , calcification , trabeculae formation and the development of the periosteum. Endochondral ossification occurs in long bones and most other bones in the body; it involves the development of bone from cartilage.
This process includes the development of a cartilage model, its growth and development, development of the primary and secondary ossification centers , and the formation of articular cartilage and the epiphyseal plates.
Endochondral ossification begins with points in the cartilage called "primary ossification centers. They are responsible for the formation of the diaphyses of long bones, short bones and certain parts of irregular bones.
Secondary ossification occurs after birth, and forms the epiphyses of long bones and the extremities of irregular and flat bones.
The diaphysis and both epiphyses of a long bone are separated by a growing zone of cartilage the epiphyseal plate. At skeletal maturity 18 to 25 years of age , all of the cartilage is replaced by bone, fusing the diaphysis and both epiphyses together epiphyseal closure.
The epiphyses, carpal bones, coracoid process, medial border of the scapula, and acromion are still cartilaginous. Bones serve a variety of mechanical functions.
Together the bones in the body form the skeleton. They provide a frame to keep the body supported, and an attachment point for skeletal muscles , tendons , ligaments and joints , which function together to generate and transfer forces so that individual body parts or the whole body can be manipulated in three-dimensional space the interaction between bone and muscle is studied in biomechanics.
Bones protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs. While bone is essentially brittle , bone does have a significant degree of elasticity , contributed chiefly by collagen.
Mechanically, bones also have a special role in hearing. The ossicles are three small bones in the middle ear which are involved in sound transduction.
The cancellous part of bones contain bone marrow. Bone marrow produces blood cells in a process called hematopoiesis. These include precursors which eventually give rise to white blood cells , and erythroblasts which give rise to red blood cells.
After the cells are matured, they enter the circulation. As well as creating cells, bone marrow is also one of the major sites where defective or aged red blood cells are destroyed.
Determined by the species, age, and the type of bone, bone cells make up to 15 percent of the bone. Growth factor storage—mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors such as insulin -like growth factors, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic proteins and others.
Bone is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing turnover of bone is a process of resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change in shape.
This is accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cells are stimulated by a variety of signals , and together referred to as a remodeling unit.
It has been hypothesized that this is a result of bone's piezoelectric properties, which cause bone to generate small electrical potentials under stress.
The action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are controlled by a number of chemical enzymes that either promote or inhibit the activity of the bone remodeling cells, controlling the rate at which bone is made, destroyed, or changed in shape.
The cells also use paracrine signalling to control the activity of each other. Calcitonin is produced by parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland , and can bind to receptors on osteoclasts to directly inhibit osteoclast activity.
Osteoprotegerin is secreted by osteoblasts and is able to bind RANK-L, inhibiting osteoclast stimulation. Osteoblasts can also be stimulated to increase bone mass through increased secretion of osteoid and by inhibiting the ability of osteoclasts to break down osseous tissue.
These hormones also promote increased secretion of osteoprotegerin. Vitamin D , parathyroid hormone and stimulation from osteocytes induce osteoblasts to increase secretion of RANK- ligand and interleukin 6 , which cytokines then stimulate increased reabsorption of bone by osteoclasts.
These same compounds also increase secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor by osteoblasts, which promotes the differentiation of progenitor cells into osteoclasts, and decrease secretion of osteoprotegerin.
Bone volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested that certain growth factors may work to locally alter bone formation by increasing osteoblast activity.
Numerous bone-derived growth factors have been isolated and classified via bone cultures. These factors include insulin-like growth factors I and II, transforming growth factor-beta, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and bone morphogenetic proteins.
The release of these growth factors from the bone matrix could cause the proliferation of osteoblast precursors. Essentially, bone growth factors may act as potential determinants of local bone formation.
A number of diseases can affect bone, including arthritis, fractures, infections, osteoporosis and tumours. Conditions relating to bone can be managed by a variety of doctors, including rheumatologists for joints, and orthopedic surgeons, who may conduct surgery to fix broken bones.
Other doctors, such as rehabilitation specialists may be involved in recovery, radiologists in interpreting the findings on imaging, and pathologists in investigating the cause of the disease, and family doctors may play a role in preventing complications of bone disease such as osteoporosis.
When a doctor sees a patient, a history and exam will be taken. Bones are then often imaged, called radiography. This might include ultrasound X-ray , CT scan , MRI scan and other imaging such as a Bone scan , which may be used to investigate cancer.
In normal bone, fractures occur when there is significant force applied, or repetitive trauma over a long time.
Fractures can also occur when a bone is weakened, such as with osteoporosis, or when there is a structural problem, such as when the bone remodels excessively such as Paget's disease or is the site of the growth of cancer.
Not all fractures are painful. Compound fractures involve the bone's penetration through the skin. Some complex fractures can be treated by the use of bone grafting procedures that replace missing bone portions.
A common long bone fracture in children is a Salter—Harris fracture. This is to promote bone healing.
In addition, surgical measures such as internal fixation may be used. Because of the immobilisation, people with fractures are often advised to undergo rehabilitation.
There are several types of tumour that can affect bone; examples of benign bone tumours include osteoma , osteoid osteoma , osteochondroma , osteoblastoma , enchondroma , giant cell tumour of bone , and aneurysmal bone cyst.
Cancer can arise in bone tissue, and bones are also a common site for other cancers to spread metastasise to. Cancers of the bone marrow inside the bone can also affect bone tissue, examples including leukemia and multiple myeloma.
Bone may also be affected by cancers in other parts of the body. Cancers in other parts of the body may release parathyroid hormone or parathyroid hormone-related peptide.
This increases bone reabsorption, and can lead to bone fractures. Bone tissue that is destroyed or altered as a result of cancers is distorted, weakened, and more prone to fracture.
This may lead to compression of the spinal cord , destruction of the marrow resulting in bruising , bleeding and immunosuppression , and is one cause of bone pain.
If the cancer is metastatic, then there might be other symptoms depending on the site of the original cancer.
Some bone cancers can also be felt. Cancers of the bone are managed according to their type, their stage , prognosis, and what symptoms they cause.
Many primary cancers of bone are treated with radiotherapy. Cancers of bone marrow may be treated with chemotherapy , and other forms of targeted therapy such as immunotherapy may be used.
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone where there is reduced bone mineral density , increasing the likelihood of fractures. This density is measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA , with the term "established osteoporosis" including the presence of a fragility fracture.
Osteoporosis treatment includes advice to stop smoking, decrease alcohol consumption, exercise regularly, and have a healthy diet.
Calcium and trace mineral supplements may also be advised, as may Vitamin D. When medication is used, it may include bisphosphonates , Strontium ranelate , and hormone replacement therapy.
Osteopathic medicine is a school of medical thought originally developed based on the idea of the link between the musculoskeletal system and overall health, but now very similar to mainstream medicine.
As of [update] , over 77, physicians in the United States are trained in osteopathic medical schools. The study of bones and teeth is referred to as osteology.
It is frequently used in anthropology , archeology and forensic science for a variety of tasks. This can include determining the nutritional, health, age or injury status of the individual the bones were taken from.
Preparing fleshed bones for these types of studies can involve the process of maceration. Typically anthropologists and archeologists study bone tools made by Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis.
Bones can serve a number of uses such as projectile points or artistic pigments, and can also be made from external bones such as antlers.
Bird skeletons are very lightweight. Their bones are smaller and thinner, to aid flight. Among mammals, bats come closest to birds in terms of bone density, suggesting that small dense bones are a flight adaptation.
Many bird bones have little marrow due to their being hollow. A bird's beak is primarily made of bone as projections of the mandibles which are covered in keratin.
A deer 's antlers are composed of bone which is an unusual example of bone being outside the skin of the animal once the velvet is shed.
The extinct predatory fish Dunkleosteus had sharp edges of hard exposed bone along its jaws. Many animals possess an exoskeleton that is not made of bone.
These include insects and crustaceans. Many animals, particularly herbivores , practice osteophagy —the eating of bones.
This is presumably carried out in order to replenish lacking phosphate. Many bone diseases that affect humans also affect other vertebrates—an example of one disorder is skeletal fluorosis.
Bones from slaughtered animals have a number of uses. In prehistoric times , they have been used for making bone tools. A special genre is scrimshaw.
Bone glue can be made by prolonged boiling of ground or cracked bones, followed by filtering and evaporation to thicken the resulting fluid.
Historically once important, bone glue and other animal glues today have only a few specialized uses, such as in antiques restoration.
Essentially the same process, with further refinement, thickening and drying, is used to make gelatin. Broth is made by simmering several ingredients for a long time, traditionally including bones.
Bone char , a porous, black, granular material primarily used for filtration and also as a black pigment , is produced by charring mammal bones.
Oracle bone script was a writing system used in Ancient China based on inscriptions in bones. Its name originates from oracle bones, which were mainly ox clavicle.
The Ancient Chinese mainly in the Shang dynasty , would write their questions on the oracle bone , and burn the bone, and where the bone cracked would be the answer for the questions.
To point the bone at someone is considered bad luck in some cultures, such as Australian aborigines , such as by the Kurdaitcha. The wishbones of fowl have been used for divination , and are still customarily used in a tradition to determine which one of two people pulling on either prong of the bone may make a wish.
Various cultures throughout history have adopted the custom of shaping an infant's head by the practice of artificial cranial deformation.
A widely practised custom in China was that of foot binding to limit the normal growth of the foot. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. This was a necessary step for the emergence of terrestrial vertebrates.
Furthermore, out of the buoyancy of water, structural rigidity of bone afforded mechanical advantages that are the most obvious features of the modern vertebrate skeleton.
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